Google Chrome prefetch POST prerender random timeout speculative sockets preconnections browser learning predict network actions
Chrome has become my browser of choice - it seems faster and is less reliant on the disk which is critical if you're on machine that's continually doing disk-intensive work (such as builds).
That speed can come at a cost. Perhaps it was an update or perhaps because of the repetition of certain actions in a web-wizard style application in development but all of a sudden using Chrome was giving random unexpected results that weren't reproducible in other browsers.
Tracing the server-side, it seems that URLs are being called - with GET requests - independently of my actions in the browser. These phantom requests include my credentials (HTTP BASIC auth) and session information (as cookies), but on the client-side (tracking Network in Developer Mode) there's no explanation for how/why/when these URLs are being hit.
Is my browser possessed?
Short answer? YES, yes it is (kind of) possessed! What I'm seeing is Chrome predicting my next action in the web-application and hitting those URLs (on my behalf) in the interests of speed. It was initially hard to find good references for this because it seems to be referenced with various terms. Officially, it's "Prerender" and the Google Whitepaper "Web Developer's Guide to Prerendering in Chrome" describes it as:
Prerendering extends the concept of prefetching. Instead of just downloading the top-level resource, it does all of the work necessary to show the page to the user—without actually showing it until the user clicks. Prerendering behaves similarly to if a user middle-clicked on a link on a page (opening it in a background tab) and then later switched to that tab. However, in prerendering, that "background tab" is totally hidden from the user, and when the user clicks, its contents are seamlessly swapped into the same tab the user was viewing. From the user’s perspective, the page simply loads much faster than before.
As mentioned in the quote, it's separate to "Prefetching" - which is the mechanism where a page can explicitly flag a URL as safe/recommended to begin fetching.
If this was a chess program, it's like the browser is thinking a few moves ahead but instead of just anticipating moves, it's actually making them.
As raised (and debated) in Chromium Issue 85229 - this time under the term "speculative sockets" - there's no way for the server/application to opt-out or ask it not to do this.
You can view diagnostics for what URLs are being Prerendered by opening the following in a tab (if you're experiencing erroneous/random behaviour it can make for interesting reading):
Shouldn't GET requests be safe? As discussed in On Chrome and URL Pre-fetching, yes but surely not always 100% safe. If you have an app that has URLs that only ever get POST requests there's nothing stopping Chrome from hitting these with Prerender GETs - and if the URLs (for convenience) handle the GET requests you could be trouble. Which leads to some inconsistencies in the above mentioned whitepaper for "Situations in which prerendering is aborted" ("...Chrome may run into a situation that could potentially lead to user-visible behavior that is incorrect"):
- POST, PUT, and DELETE XMLHTTPRequests
False: although in your usage of an application/site a URL may only ever be invoked via POST, you can't stop it attempting the same URL with a GET, just minus the parameters.
- Developer Tools is open
False: In my usage anyway, using the Developer tools (trying to track Network requests) will not stop the Prerender requests being made.
Which (finally) leads to the solution - turn off Prerending. The whitepaper has a section titled "Ensuring you have prerender turned on" (despite it being enabled by default). So disabling it involves following the reverse:
- Click the 'three bars' icon in the top right of Chrome.
- Click 'Settings'
- Click 'Show advanced settings...'
- Under 'Privacy'
- un-check the option 'Predict network actions to improve page load performance'
- un-check 'Use a prediction service to help complete searches and URLs typed in the address bar'
(this specifically relates to prefetch/prerender of URLs typed into the 'Omnibox' address bar - Chrome will actually be calling up the suggested sites in the background if they happen to be URLs you commonly select)
- Open a new tab and paste in "
Confirm that it lists:
- Prerender Enabled: false
- Prerender Omnibox Enabled: false
There is some confusion about the requests being made for Prerender and reports of Chrome making multiple (and unnecessary) background requests for the favicon - e.g. Issue 39402. At the server-side it will be clear that Prerender requests are for URLs that you tend to access, before you actually access them rather than URLs ending in
/favicon.ico. There doesn't seem to be a way to disable favicon 'polling' but the above mentioned issue seems to indicate improvements were being considered to reduce the server load.